rig ship


A Platform supply vessel (often abbreviated as PSV) is a ship specially designed to supply offshore oil platforms. These ships range from 65 to 350 feet in length and accomplish a variety of tasks. The primary function for most of these vessels is transportation of goods and personnel to and from offshore oil platforms and other offshore structures.
Wind Power Explained

Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form, such as electricity, using wind turbines. At the end of 2007, worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was 94.1 gigawatts.Although wind currently produces about 1% of world-wide electricity use, it accounts for approximately 19% of electricity production in Denmark, 9% in Spain and Portugal, and 6% in Germany and the Republic of Ireland (2007 data). Globally, wind power generation increased more than fivefold between 2000 and 2007.

Most wind power is generated in the form of electricity. Large scale wind farms are connected to electrical grids. Individual turbines can provide electricity to isolated locations. In windmills, wind energy is used directly as mechanical energy for pumping water or grinding grain.

Wind energy is plentiful, renewable, widely distributed, clean, and reduces greenhouse gas emissions when it displaces fossil-fuel-derived electricity. The intermittency of wind seldom creates problems when using wind power to supply a low proportion of total demand, but it presents extra costs when wind is to be used for a large fraction of demand. However these costs even for quite large percentage penetrations are considered to be modest.


It is largely recognised now that traditional sources of energy
are unsustainable and we need to look to alternative sources to provide the UK’s power.

The majority of our power comes from the burning of fossil
fuels. Two problems face this source - the energy depends on
the provision of a finite source of fuel and the production of
the fuel has an environmental impact.

The burning of fossil fuels releases emissions into the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide, which are known to contribute to climate change and acid rain.

The other main energy source in the UK is nuclear power. However there is concern about the safety of nuclear technology, the disposal of nuclear waste and the
decommissioning of these power stations.

Renewable energy was identified as a potential alternative to
these power sources and over the couple of decades
technology has significantly developed. Sources of renewable
energy include:
• Wind Generated Power
• Hydropower (energy from water)
• Solar Energy
• Biomass (burning or digestion of plant or animal matter)
• Geothermal (tapping into the natural heat of the earth)

wind power

Currently around 3% of the UK’s
energy comes from a renewable source
The Government has signed up
to an increasing commitment
to electricity

wind energy

wind generation

Wave and tidal power
Currently, wind generated energy offers the greatest potential for renewable energy owing mainly to the fact that wind power technology is already advanced.

However developments are progressing in the advancement of wave and tidal power. The UK has one of the largest wave energy resources in the world because of its situation on the north-east corner of the Atlantic,

where waves are generated throughout thousands of miles of ocean.
Likewise, large amounts of energy is stored in incoming and outgoing tides and with the use of tidal power stations this can be captured. Both types of energy generators are being tested at various sites throughout the UK.

In 2000 the Crown Estate announced it would be leasing areas of seabed for the purpose of offshore wind power farm developments

The Kentish Flats wind power generation farm was proposed under this round one call and the wind farm was granted consent in 2003.

Following this, the Energy Minister announced in 2003 that no further areas of seabed would be leased to wind farm developers until a strategic review of and consultation on offshore wind farm development had taken place.

This review, Future Offshore, set the policy framework and proposed that further development would be restricted to three strategic areas, one being the Thames Estuary.

Following the completion of a Strategic Environmental Assessment for these areas, the Crown Estate announced its tender process for round two sites.

Two developments of wind power generation farms off the Kent coast were successful -
London Array and Thanet Offshore Wind Power Farm. These projects are currently in the process of applying to DTI for consent to develop the wind farms.

generated from renewable energies, with targets of 10% in 2010, 15% in 2015 and 20% in 2020.

Facts and figures
By 2015 15% of the UK’s electricity must be generated
from renewable energies.
• The UK has 33% of the total European offshore wind power resource.

• The first Kent offshore wind farm was commissioned in
• The Kentish Flats wind farm has an installed capacity of
90MW from 30 turbines - enough energy for 70,000
• The proposed Thanet Offshore Wind Farm will have a
potential installed capacity of 300MW - enough to power
240,000 homes.
• The proposed London Array will have a potential 1,000
MW installed capacity - enough energy for 750,000
• Wave and tidal energy are also potential routes for renewable energy from offshore.



Kentish Flats was commissioned in 2005 and is situated 8.5km due north of Herne Bay and Whitstable. The project has been
developed and is owned by Elsam development and, at the time of its completion, was the largest offshore wind farm in the UK.
The 30 turbines, located in the 10km2 site, are each rated at 3MW capacity, providing a total project capacity of 90MW. The
power is brought ashore via seabed cables to a new sub-station at Herne Bay. The potential annual output of the Kentish Flats is 280,000,000kWh,which is roughly half of the annual consumption of Canterbury, Whitstable and Herne Bay.
It is estimated that this output will supply the equivalent of over 70,000 households with clean electricity and over its 20 year life time, the Kentish Flats wind generation project will displace an estimated 4.4 million tonnes of carbon dioxide, compared to conventional fossil fuel generation.

Thanet Offshore Wind Farm is being developed by Thanet Offshore Wind Ltd, a subsidiary of Warwick Energy Ltd. If consent is
granted the development will consist of up to 83 wind turbines, generating a total of 300MW - enough to power 240,000 homes.
Located 12km north east of Foreness Point, the wind farm will cover an area of 35km2 with wind turbines of 150m in height at its highest point.
Power will be brought ashore from this wind farm to an existing sub-station at Richborough. If consents are granted
construction of the wind power farm ,could commence March 2007, with commissioning beginning in October 2007

London Array

if successful, will be located 20km (12miles) off the Kent and Essex coasts, in the outer Thames Estuary. The development is being taken forward by a consortium called London Array Ltd, comprising Shell Wind Energy Ltd, E.ON UK Renewables and CORE Ltd. If consent is granted, up to 271turbines will be installed over a four year period occupying an area of around 245km2, with power brought ashore to a new substation at Graveney. Once operational, the capacity of the whole wind farm would be 1,000 MW - this would be enough energy to provide 750,000 homes with their domestic electricity needs, the
equivalent of a quarter of Greater London or all the homes in
Kent and Sussex. Subject to the award of the consent, the windfarm could be fully operational by 2010.


What are Photovoltaics?


Solar electricity is created by using Photovoltaic (PV) technologyby converting solar energy into solar electricity from sunlight. Photovoltaic systems use sunlight to power ordinary electrical equipment, for example, household appliances, computers and lighting. The photovoltaic (PV) process converts free solar energy - the most abundant energy source on the planet - directly into solar power. Note that this is not the familiar "passive" or solar thermal technology used for space heating and hot water production.

A PV cell consists of two or more thin layers of semi-conducting material, most commonly silicon. When the silicon is exposed to light, electrical charges are generated and this can be conducted away by metal contacts as direct current (DC). The electrical output from a single cell is small, so multiple cells are connected together and encapsulated (usually behind glass) to form a module (sometimes referred to as a "panel"). The PV module is the principle building block of a PV system and any number of modules can be connected together to give the desired electrical output.

PV equipment has no moving parts and as a result requires minimal maintenance. It generates solar electricity without producing emissions of greenhouse or any other gases, and its operation is virtually silent.

What is PV power used for?

PV systems supply solar electricity to many applications in the UK, ranging from systems supplying power to city buildings (which are also connected to the normal local solar power network) to systems supplying power to garden lights or to remote telecom relay stations.

The main area of interest in the UK today is grid connect PV systems. These systems are connected to the local solar electricity network. This means that during the day, the solar electricity generated by the PV system can either be used immediately (which is normal for systems installed on offices and other commercial buildings), or can be sold to one of the electricity supply companies (which is more common for domestic systems where the occupier may be out during the day). In the evening, when the electrical system is unable to provide the electricity required, power can be bought back from the network. In effect, the grid is acting as an energy storage system, which means the PV system does not need to include battery storage.

Grid connect PV systems are often integrated into buildings. PV technology is ideally suited to use on buildings, providing pollution and noise-free solar power without using extra space. The use of photovoltaics on buildings has grown substantially in the UK over the last few years, with many impressive examples already in operation.

PV systems can be incorporated into buildings in various ways. Sloping rooftops are an ideal site, where modules can simply be mounted using frames. Photovoltaic systems can also be incorporated into the actual building fabric, for example PV roof tiles are now available which can be fitted as would standard tiles. In addition, PV can also be incorporated as building facades, canopies and sky lights amongst many other applications.

Stand-alone photovoltaic systems have been used for many years in the UK to supply solar electricity to applications where grid solar power supplies are unavailable or difficult to connect to. Examples include monitoring stations, radio repeater stations, telephone kiosks and street lighting. There is also a substantial market for PV technology in the leisure industry, with battery chargers for boats and caravans, as well as for powering garden equipment such as solar electricity fountains. These systems normally use batteries to store the solar power, if larger amounts are required they can be combined with another source of power - a biomass generator, a wind turbine or diesel generator to form a hybrid power supply system.

PV technology is also widely used in the developing world. The technology is particularly suited here, where electricity grids are unreliable or non-existent, with remote locations often making PV power supply the most economic option. In addition, many developing countries have high solar radiation levels year round.



Types of PV Cell

Monocrystalline Silicon Cells:
Made using cells saw-cut from a single cylindrical crystal of silicon, this is the most efficient of the photovoltaic (PV) technologies. The principle advantage of monocrystalline cells are their high efficiencies, typically around 15%, although the manufacturing process required to produce monocrystalline silicon is complicated, resulting in slightly higher costs than other technologies.

Multicrystalline Silicon Cells:
Made from cells cut from an ingot of melted and recrystallised silicon. In the manufacturing process, molten silicon is cast into ingots of polycrystalline silicon, these ingots are then saw-cut into very thin wafers and assembled into complete cells. Multicrystalline cells are cheaper to produce than monocrystalline ones, due to the simpler manufacturing process. However, they tend to be slightly less efficient, with average efficiencies of around 12%., creating a granular texture

Thick-film Silicon:
Another multicrystalline technology where the silicon is deposited in a continuous process onto a base material giving a fine grained, sparkling appearance. Like all crystalline PV, this is encapsulated in a transparent insulating polymer with a tempered glass cover and usually bound into a strong aluminium frame.

Amorphous Silicon:
Amorphous silicon cells are composed of silicon atoms in a thin homogenous layer rather than a crystal structure. Amorphous silicon absorbs light more effectively than crystalline silicon, so the cells can be thinner. For this reason, amorphous silicon is also known as a "thin film" PV technology. Amorphous silicon can be deposited on a wide range of substrates, both rigid and flexible, which makes it ideal for curved surfaces and "fold-away" modules. Amorphous cells are, however, less efficient than crystalline based cells, with typical efficiencies of around 6%, but they are easier and therefore cheaper to produce. Their low cost makes them ideally suited for many applications where high efficiency is not required and low cost is important.

Other Thin Films:
A number of other promising materials such as cadmium telluride (CdTe) and copper indium diselenide (CIS) are now being used for PV modules. The attraction of these technologies is that they can be manufactured by relatively inexpensive industrial processes, certainly in comparison to crystalline silicon technologies, yet they typically offer higher module efficiencies than amorphous silicon. New technologies based on the photosynthesis process are not yet on the market.